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Disarmament Diplomacy

Issue No. 88, Summer 2008

In the News

Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd initiates New International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament

Joint Statement by Gareth Evans and Yoriko Kawaguchi, Co-Chairs, 25 September 2008

New York, 25 September 2008. We are delighted with the outstanding individuals who have agreed to serve as Commissioners on the International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament established by the Governments of Australia and Japan, and with the equally impressive group of Advisory Board members and Associated Research Centres who will be contributing to the Commission's work, all listed in the attachment.

It is of great international concern that so little progress has been made in recent years on the vital nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament agenda. We hope the Commission can break this stalemate by reinvigorating, at a high political level, awareness of the global need for nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament, in the context of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference and beyond.

To succeed in engaging political decision makers, the Commission will need to recognise, and bring a realistic approach to, the many factors continuing to drive nuclear weapons acquisition and retention. The case for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament will need to be restated in terms that are not only technically sound but also compelling for political decision makers.

In particular the Commission will be seeking, through the credibility of its membership, the quality of its arguments and the effectiveness of its advocacy, to change the formulaic and unproductive nature of much of the current international nuclear debate between nuclear-weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states, developed and developing country NPT parties, and NPT parties and non-parties.

In support of this goal, the Commission will take an inclusive approach, emphasising the interconnectedness of the challenges in relation to non-proliferation, disarmament and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will make practical and realistic recommendations in each of these areas, recognising that movement in each part will encourage progress in others.

The implications of the likely "nuclear renaissance" due to climate change and energy security concerns will be a focus for the Commission, including the need for renewed attention to nuclear safeguards, safety and security.

The Commission intends engaging relevant global actors in identifying the most effective policy approaches. The Commission will also look for ways by which the nuclear armed states outside the NPT can be fully integrated into global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts.

The Commission will carry out its work against the background of a number of major developments of concern in the nuclear landscape in the last decade:

But as well as these challenges, the Commission will also be able to take advantage of the opportunities presented by the intense policy and research activity now going on worldwide in the lead-up to the 2010 NPT Review Conference, not least the high-level debate stimulated by the bipartisan and realist case for disarmament recently made by the U.S. statesmen Henry Kissinger, Sam Nunn, William Perry and George Shultz.

The Commission will publish a major report no later than January 2010, in time to help shape a global consensus in the lead-up to the 2010 NPT Review Conference. It will also consider publishing a supplementary report in mid-2010, making such further recommendations as are appropriate in the aftermath of that Conference.

It is envisaged the full Commission will meet about six times in total, at approximately threemonthly intervals, with the first meeting planned for 19-21 October in Sydney, and later venues likely to include Japan, Europe and North America. It is anticipated that several regional meetings, in which smaller groups of Commissioners would participate, will also be arranged during the life of the Commission.

We do not underestimate the magnitude of the tasks facing the Commission. But the many positive reactions since it was announced suggest there is considerable support for a fundamental re-evaluation of the nuclear challenges facing the world and practical ways of addressing them.

We look forward to working with our fellow Commissioners and advisers, and with the broad international community, on this important initiative.


Gareth Evans (Australia) (Co-Chair)
Mr Evans was Australia's Resources and Energy Minister from 1984 to 1987 and Foreign Minister from 1988 to 1996. He has been President of the International Crisis Group since 2000, and chair or member of several global commissions, including the UN Secretary-General's High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change in 2004.

Yoriko Kawaguchi (Japan) (Co-Chair)
Ms Kawaguchi was a MITI Director-General, Managing Director of Suntory Ltd, and then Japan's Environment Minister from 2000 to 2002, and Foreign Minister from 2002 to 2004. She is currently a member of the House of Councillors and Chair of the Liberal Democratic Party Research Commission on Environment.

Ali Alatas (Indonesia)
Mr Alatas was Foreign Minister of Indonesia from 1988 to 1999. He is currently an adviser to and special envoy of the President of the Republic of Indonesia.

Turki Al-Faisal (Saudi Arabia)
HRH Prince Turki was Director General of Intelligence from 1977 to 2001, Ambassador to the United Kingdom and Ireland from 2002 to 2005, and to the United States from 2005 to 2007. He is currently Chairman of the Board of the King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic studies in Riyadh.

Alexei Arbatov (Russia)
Dr Arbatov was a member of the Russian Duma and Deputy Chairman of the Duma Defence Committee from 1994 to 2003. He is currently a Scholar-in-residence and Chair of the nonproliferation program at the Carnegie Moscow Center.

Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norway)
Dr Brundtland was Prime Minister of Norway for ten years between 1981 and 1996. She chaired the World Commission on Environment and Development which published the report 'Our Common Future' in 1987, and Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to 2003. She is currently the United Nations Secretary-General's Special Envoy on Climate Change.

Frene Noshir Ginwala (South Africa)
Dr Ginwala was Speaker of South Africa's National Assembly from 1994 to 2004. She is currently Chancellor of the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

François Heisbourg (France)
Mr Heisbourg is Chairman of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and Geneva Centre for Security Policy, and Special Adviser at the Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, and was a member of the French government commission that produced the 2008 Defence and National Security White Paper.

Jehangir Karamat (Pakistan)
General (Retired) Karamat was Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Chief of Army Staff until 1998 and Pakistan's Ambassador to the United States from 2004 to 2006. He is currently the Director of Spearhead Research.

Brajesh Mishra (India)
Mr Mishra was India's Ambassador in Geneva, Jakarta and New York from 1973 to 1981, and National Security Adviser and Principal Secretary to former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee from 1998 to 2004.

Klaus Naumann (Germany)
General (Retired) Naumann was Chairman of the NATO Military Committee from 1996 to 1999 and Chief of the Defence Staff in Germany from 1991 to 1996. He is currently a member of the International Advisory Board of the World Security Network Foundation.

William Perry (United States)
Dr Perry was the U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1994 to 1997. He is currently a professor at Stanford University in the School of Engineering and Institute of International Studies.

Wang Yingfan (China)
Ambassador Wang was China's Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 2000 to 2003, and Vice-Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Chinese National People's Congress from 2003 to 2008.

Shirley Williams (United Kingdom)
Baroness Williams was Leader of the Liberal Democrat Party in the House of Lords from 2001 to 2004. She is currently Professor Emeritus of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and an adviser to Prime Minister Gordon Brown on nuclear proliferation issues.

Ernesto Zedillo (Mexico)
Dr Zedillo was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. He is currently Director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, and Professor in the Field of International Economics and Politics at Yale University.

Advisory Board

Eminent individuals who have agreed to be available to the Commission for advice and consultation as required, and in some cases (*) to play a more intensively engaged role as Research Consultants. Additional names may be added as the work of the Commission proceeds.

Nobuyasu Abe (Japan)*
UN Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs, 2003-06.

Shlomo Ben Ami (Israel)
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 2000-01; Vice-President of the Toledo International Centre for Peace.

Celso Amorim (Brazil)
Minister of Foreign Affairs 1993-95, and since 2003.

Hans Blix (Sweden)
Director General of IAEA,1981-97; Executive Chairman of UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission, 2000-03; Chairman, Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, 2006.

Lakhdar Brahimi (Algeria)
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1991-93; UN Under-Secretary-General, Special Representative, Envoy and Adviser 1997-2006.

John Carlson (Australia)
Director General of Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office since 1989.

Nabil Fahmy (Egypt)
Ambassador of Egypt to the United States,1999-2008.

Louise Fréchette (Canada)
Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations,1998-2006.

Lawrence Freedman (UK)
Professor of War Studies at King's College London since 1982.

Han Sung-Joo (Republic of Korea)
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1993-94. Professor Emeritus of International Relations at Korea University.

Henry Kissinger (U.S.)
Secretary of State from 1973 -77; National Security Advisor 1969-75; Chairman of Kissinger Associates Inc.

Shunsuke Kondo (Japan)
Chairman of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission since 2004.

Martine Letts (Australia)*
Former Australian Ambassador; Secretary General of the Australian Red Cross 2001-04; Deputy Director of the Lowy Institute for International Policy.

Patricia Lewis (Ireland)*
Director of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), 1997-2008.

Sam Nunn (United States)
Senator from Georgia, 1972-97; Chairman of the Senate Armed Service Committee, 1987-1995; Co-Chairman and CEO of the Nuclear Threat Initiative.

Robert O'Neill (Australia)
Chichele Professor for the History of War at Oxford University, 1987-2000.

George Perkovich (United States)*
Vice-President of Studies and director of the nonproliferation program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Michael Quinlan (United Kingdom)
Permanent Under-Secretary at the British Ministry of Defence, 1988-92.

V R Raghavan (India)*
Director General of Military Operations, 1992-94; Advisor, Delhi Policy Group.

George Robertson (United Kingdom)
Secretary of Defence 1997-99; Secretary General of NATO, 1999-2004.

Michel Rocard (France)
Prime Minister, 1988-91. Member of the European Parliament.

Yukio Satoh (Japan)
Permanent Representative of Japan to the United Nations from 1998 to 2002. President of the Japan Institute of International Affairs.

George Shultz (United States)
Secretary of State from 1982-89; Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution for War, Revolution and Peace at Stanford University.

Associated Research Centres

These Centres will, as required, produce specially commissioned research on particular subjects; convene expert workshops and roundtables, drawing on other research institutes and think-tanks; and host regional meetings bringing together groups of Commissioners, Advisory Board members, experts and civil society and industry representatives.

Carnegie Endowment, Washington D.C.
President: Jessica T. Mathews
Vice President for Studies: George Perkovich
Website: www.carnegieendowment.org/

Delhi Policy Group, New Delhi
Chairman: Shankar Bajpai
Advisor: Lt.Gen. (Retd.)V R Raghavan
Website: www.delhipolicygroup.com

Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, Paris
Directeur : Camille Grand
Conseiller Spécial du Président : François Heisbourg
Maître de recherché: Bruno Tertrais
Website : www.frstrategie.org

Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), San Jose, Costa Rica
Secretary General: Francisco Rojas
Website : www.flacso.org

Japan Institute of International Affairs, Tokyo
President: Yukio Satoh
Website: www.jiia.or.jp/en

King's College London
Vice-Principal (Research): Professor Sir Lawrence Freedman
War Studies Group
Website: www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/sspp/ws

Lowy Institute for International Policy, Sydney
Executive Director: Allan Gyngell
Deputy Director: Martine Letts
Program Director - International Security: Rory Medcalf
Website: www.lowyinstitute.org

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