Issue No. 88, Summer 2008
In the News
Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd initiates New
International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and
Joint Statement by Gareth Evans and Yoriko Kawaguchi,
Co-Chairs, 25 September 2008
New York, 25 September 2008. We are delighted with the
outstanding individuals who have agreed to serve as Commissioners
on the International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and
Disarmament established by the Governments of Australia and Japan,
and with the equally impressive group of Advisory Board members and
Associated Research Centres who will be contributing to the
Commission's work, all listed in the attachment.
It is of great international concern that so little progress has
been made in recent years on the vital nuclear non-proliferation
and disarmament agenda. We hope the Commission can break this
stalemate by reinvigorating, at a high political level, awareness
of the global need for nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament, in
the context of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
Review Conference and beyond.
To succeed in engaging political decision makers, the Commission
will need to recognise, and bring a realistic approach to, the many
factors continuing to drive nuclear weapons acquisition and
retention. The case for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament
will need to be restated in terms that are not only technically
sound but also compelling for political decision makers.
In particular the Commission will be seeking, through the
credibility of its membership, the quality of its arguments and the
effectiveness of its advocacy, to change the formulaic and
unproductive nature of much of the current international nuclear
debate between nuclear-weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states,
developed and developing country NPT parties, and NPT parties and
In support of this goal, the Commission will take an inclusive
approach, emphasising the interconnectedness of the challenges in
relation to non-proliferation, disarmament and the peaceful uses of
nuclear energy. It will make practical and realistic
recommendations in each of these areas, recognising that movement
in each part will encourage progress in others.
The implications of the likely "nuclear renaissance" due to
climate change and energy security concerns will be a focus for the
Commission, including the need for renewed attention to nuclear
safeguards, safety and security.
The Commission intends engaging relevant global actors in
identifying the most effective policy approaches. The Commission
will also look for ways by which the nuclear armed states outside
the NPT can be fully integrated into global non-proliferation and
The Commission will carry out its work against the background of
a number of major developments of concern in the nuclear landscape
in the last decade:
- the emergence of India and Pakistan since 1998 as nuclear-armed
states outside the NPT, joining Israel (notwithstanding its
continued policy of strategic ambiguity);
- North Korea's purported withdrawal from the NPT, nuclear test
in 2006, and uncertain commitment to denuclearisation;
- Iran's development within the NPT of proliferation sensitive
nuclear activities, including uranium enrichment and heavy water
- accelerated concern post 9/11 about the risk of nuclear or
- the impact of the internet and black market activity in
substantially increasing knowledge of, and access to, sensitive
- the major renewal of interest in nuclear energy for electricity
generation generated by concern about climate change and energy
- increasing post-Cold War discontent with NPT nuclear-weapon
states' performance in meeting their nuclear disarmament
But as well as these challenges, the Commission will also be
able to take advantage of the opportunities presented by the
intense policy and research activity now going on worldwide in the
lead-up to the 2010 NPT Review Conference, not least the high-level
debate stimulated by the bipartisan and realist case for
disarmament recently made by the U.S. statesmen Henry Kissinger,
Sam Nunn, William Perry and George Shultz.
The Commission will publish a major report no later than January
2010, in time to help shape a global consensus in the lead-up to
the 2010 NPT Review Conference. It will also consider publishing a
supplementary report in mid-2010, making such further
recommendations as are appropriate in the aftermath of that
It is envisaged the full Commission will meet about six times in
total, at approximately threemonthly intervals, with the first
meeting planned for 19-21 October in Sydney, and later venues
likely to include Japan, Europe and North America. It is
anticipated that several regional meetings, in which smaller groups
of Commissioners would participate, will also be arranged during
the life of the Commission.
We do not underestimate the magnitude of the tasks facing the
Commission. But the many positive reactions since it was announced
suggest there is considerable support for a fundamental
re-evaluation of the nuclear challenges facing the world and
practical ways of addressing them.
We look forward to working with our fellow Commissioners and
advisers, and with the broad international community, on this
Gareth Evans (Australia) (Co-Chair)
Mr Evans was Australia's Resources and Energy Minister from 1984
to 1987 and Foreign Minister from 1988 to 1996. He has been
President of the International Crisis Group since 2000, and chair
or member of several global commissions, including the UN
Secretary-General's High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and
Change in 2004.
Yoriko Kawaguchi (Japan) (Co-Chair)
Ms Kawaguchi was a MITI Director-General, Managing Director of
Suntory Ltd, and then Japan's Environment Minister from 2000 to
2002, and Foreign Minister from 2002 to 2004. She is currently a
member of the House of Councillors and Chair of the Liberal
Democratic Party Research Commission on Environment.
Ali Alatas (Indonesia)
Mr Alatas was Foreign Minister of Indonesia from 1988 to 1999. He
is currently an adviser to and special envoy of the President of
the Republic of Indonesia.
Turki Al-Faisal (Saudi Arabia)
HRH Prince Turki was Director General of Intelligence from 1977 to
2001, Ambassador to the United Kingdom and Ireland from 2002 to
2005, and to the United States from 2005 to 2007. He is currently
Chairman of the Board of the King Faisal Center for Research and
Islamic studies in Riyadh.
Alexei Arbatov (Russia)
Dr Arbatov was a member of the Russian Duma and Deputy Chairman of
the Duma Defence Committee from 1994 to 2003. He is currently a
Scholar-in-residence and Chair of the nonproliferation program at
the Carnegie Moscow Center.
Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norway)
Dr Brundtland was Prime Minister of Norway for ten years between
1981 and 1996. She chaired the World Commission on Environment and
Development which published the report 'Our Common Future' in 1987,
and Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to
2003. She is currently the United Nations Secretary-General's
Special Envoy on Climate Change.
Frene Noshir Ginwala (South Africa)
Dr Ginwala was Speaker of South Africa's National Assembly from
1994 to 2004. She is currently Chancellor of the University of
François Heisbourg (France)
Mr Heisbourg is Chairman of the International Institute for
Strategic Studies and Geneva Centre for Security Policy, and
Special Adviser at the Fondation pour la Recherche
Stratégique, and was a member of the French government
commission that produced the 2008 Defence and National Security
Jehangir Karamat (Pakistan)
General (Retired) Karamat was Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff and Chief of Army Staff until 1998 and Pakistan's Ambassador
to the United States from 2004 to 2006. He is currently the
Director of Spearhead Research.
Brajesh Mishra (India)
Mr Mishra was India's Ambassador in Geneva, Jakarta and New York
from 1973 to 1981, and National Security Adviser and Principal
Secretary to former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee from
1998 to 2004.
Klaus Naumann (Germany)
General (Retired) Naumann was Chairman of the NATO Military
Committee from 1996 to 1999 and Chief of the Defence Staff in
Germany from 1991 to 1996. He is currently a member of the
International Advisory Board of the World Security Network
William Perry (United States)
Dr Perry was the U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1994 to 1997. He
is currently a professor at Stanford University in the School of
Engineering and Institute of International Studies.
Wang Yingfan (China)
Ambassador Wang was China's Permanent Representative to the United
Nations from 2000 to 2003, and Vice-Chairman of the Foreign Affairs
Committee of the Chinese National People's Congress from 2003 to
Shirley Williams (United Kingdom)
Baroness Williams was Leader of the Liberal Democrat Party in the
House of Lords from 2001 to 2004. She is currently Professor
Emeritus of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
and an adviser to Prime Minister Gordon Brown on nuclear
Ernesto Zedillo (Mexico)
Dr Zedillo was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000. He is
currently Director of the Yale Center for the Study of
Globalization, and Professor in the Field of International
Economics and Politics at Yale University.
Eminent individuals who have agreed to be available to the
Commission for advice and consultation as required, and in some
cases (*) to play a more intensively engaged role as Research
Consultants. Additional names may be added as the work of the
Nobuyasu Abe (Japan)*
UN Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs, 2003-06.
Shlomo Ben Ami (Israel)
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 2000-01; Vice-President of the Toledo
International Centre for Peace.
Celso Amorim (Brazil)
Minister of Foreign Affairs 1993-95, and since 2003.
Hans Blix (Sweden)
Director General of IAEA,1981-97; Executive Chairman of UN
Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission, 2000-03;
Chairman, Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, 2006.
Lakhdar Brahimi (Algeria)
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1991-93; UN Under-Secretary-General,
Special Representative, Envoy and Adviser 1997-2006.
John Carlson (Australia)
Director General of Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation
Office since 1989.
Nabil Fahmy (Egypt)
Ambassador of Egypt to the United States,1999-2008.
Louise Fréchette (Canada)
Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations,1998-2006.
Lawrence Freedman (UK)
Professor of War Studies at King's College London since 1982.
Han Sung-Joo (Republic of Korea)
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1993-94. Professor Emeritus of
International Relations at Korea University.
Henry Kissinger (U.S.)
Secretary of State from 1973 -77; National Security Advisor
1969-75; Chairman of Kissinger Associates Inc.
Shunsuke Kondo (Japan)
Chairman of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission since 2004.
Martine Letts (Australia)*
Former Australian Ambassador; Secretary General of the Australian
Red Cross 2001-04; Deputy Director of the Lowy Institute for
Patricia Lewis (Ireland)*
Director of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
Sam Nunn (United States)
Senator from Georgia, 1972-97; Chairman of the Senate Armed
Service Committee, 1987-1995; Co-Chairman and CEO of the Nuclear
Robert O'Neill (Australia)
Chichele Professor for the History of War at Oxford University,
George Perkovich (United States)*
Vice-President of Studies and director of the nonproliferation
program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Michael Quinlan (United Kingdom)
Permanent Under-Secretary at the British Ministry of Defence,
V R Raghavan (India)*
Director General of Military Operations, 1992-94; Advisor, Delhi
George Robertson (United Kingdom)
Secretary of Defence 1997-99; Secretary General of NATO,
Michel Rocard (France)
Prime Minister, 1988-91. Member of the European Parliament.
Yukio Satoh (Japan)
Permanent Representative of Japan to the United Nations from 1998
to 2002. President of the Japan Institute of International
George Shultz (United States)
Secretary of State from 1982-89; Distinguished Fellow at the
Hoover Institution for War, Revolution and Peace at Stanford
Associated Research Centres
These Centres will, as required, produce specially
commissioned research on particular subjects; convene expert
workshops and roundtables, drawing on other research institutes and
think-tanks; and host regional meetings bringing together groups of
Commissioners, Advisory Board members, experts and civil society
and industry representatives.
Carnegie Endowment, Washington D.C.
President: Jessica T. Mathews
Vice President for Studies: George Perkovich
Delhi Policy Group, New Delhi
Chairman: Shankar Bajpai
Advisor: Lt.Gen. (Retd.)V R Raghavan
Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, Paris
Directeur : Camille Grand
Conseiller Spécial du Président : François
Maître de recherché: Bruno Tertrais
Website : www.frstrategie.org
Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), San
Jose, Costa Rica
Secretary General: Francisco Rojas
Website : www.flacso.org
Japan Institute of International Affairs, Tokyo
President: Yukio Satoh
King's College London
Vice-Principal (Research): Professor Sir Lawrence Freedman
War Studies Group
Lowy Institute for International Policy, Sydney
Executive Director: Allan Gyngell
Deputy Director: Martine Letts
Program Director - International Security: Rory Medcalf
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