Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)
The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which opened for signature
in 1996, is intended to prohibit all nuclear weapon test explosions. The
CTBT has achieved near universal adherence, however, Article XIV of the
Treaty requires ratification by 44 named states, before the Treaty can
enter into force.
Of these 44 states, three - India, Pakistan, and North
Korea - have not signed the Treaty. A further six states - China,
Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, and the United
States - have signed but not ratified the Treaty. As of early 2011, Indonesia has been signalling that it will soon ratify the treaty and following the US Senate's ratification of New START, the Obama Administration has indicated that CTBT ratification will be next in line.
Unfinished Business: the Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear
Testing, by Dr Rebecca Johnson
Published by UNIDIR, Unfinished Business: the Negotiation
of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing, by Rebecca Johnson
details how the CTBT was fought for, opposed and finally negotiated.
It considers how a decade of political and institutional obstacles
have prevented the CTBT from entering into full legal effect, including
the Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests of May 1998, the US failure
to ratify the treaty in 1999, and the October 9, 2006 nuclear test
by North Korea.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty remains a key piece of unfinished
business of the nuclear age. As a growing number of governments and decisionmakers
put forward ideas to move the world toward abolishing nuclear weapons,
much can be learned from how the CTBT was fought for, opposed and finally
negotiated between 1994 and 1996. The treaty's necessity was underlined
when the Democratic People's Republic of Korea conducted a nuclear test
explosion in 2006, but more than a decade of political and institutional
obstacles have prevented the CTBT from entering into full legal effect.
Acronym Analysis and Reporting
- Nuclear Testing and Proliferation
- an Inextricable Connection, by Thomas Graham, Jr. and David Hafemeister,
Disarmament Diplomacy, No.91, Summer 2009
- Unfinished Business: Lessons from
the CTBT Negotiations, by Rebecca Johnson, Disarmament Diplomacy,
No.91, Summer 2009
- Second North Korean Nuclear
Test underscores urgency of CTBT and Disarmament, Disarmament News
Review, Disarmament Diplomacy, No.91, Summer 2009
- CTBTO prepares for Zero-growth
Budget, Disarmament News Review, Disarmament Diplomacy, No.91, Summer
Background Information and Documents
- Ellen Tauscher, The Case for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 10 May 2011
- Time To Act on Nuclear Test Ban by Ambassador Tibor Toth, 3 September 2010
- North Korea Nuclear test, 25 May
- President Obama speech on Nuclear
Disarmament, 5 April 2009
- Hillary Clinton Nomination Hearings
To Be Secretary of State, 13 January 2009
- US Chair Senate Foreign Relations
Committee John Kerry oped on New Directions for Foreign Relations,
13 January 2009
- Despatch 2 from the CTBT Integrated Field
Exercise in Arcania, Rebecca Johnson, 10 September 2008
- Despatch from the CTBT On-site Inspection
in Arcania, 6 September 2008
- CTBT Entry into Force Conference
Agrees on practical Measures and Calls for Hold-outs to Sign and Ratify,
Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No. 85, Summer 2007.
- Joint Ministerial Statement on CTBT
Presented in New York at the United Nations by Fifty-Nine Foreign Ministers,
Co-Chairs Australia, Canada, Finland, Japan, the Netherlands, September
- Statement by UN Secretary-General
Kofi Annan, September 20, 2006.
- '[O]ur best hope of stemming nuclear
proliferation', IAEA Director General Dr Mohamed ElBaradei on the
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, September 1, 2006
- For the CTBT text and latest on signatories and ratifications go to
the CTBT Organisation website at: www.ctbto.org.
CTBT On-site Inspection Exercise, September 2008
Rebecca Johnson observes the CTBT On-site inspection exercise in Kazakhstan.
See also: Acronym's CTBT archive, including
Rebecca Johnson's reports on the treaty negotiations.
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