U.N. Security Council Resolution 1511 on Iraq, October 16
The UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1511 on October 16. The resolution, originally proposed by the United States, was co-sponsored by Cameroon, Spain and United Kingdom.
Cameroon, Spain, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America: resolution 1511
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its previous resolutions on Iraq, including resolution 1483 (2003) of 22 May 2003 and 1500 (2003) of 14 August 2003, and on threats to peace and security caused by terrorist acts, including resolution 1373 (2001) of 28 September 2001, and other relevant resolutions,
Underscoring that the sovereignty of Iraq resides in the State of Iraq, reaffirming the right of the Iraqi people freely to determine their own political future and control their own natural resources, reiterating its resolve that the day when Iraqis govern themselves must come quickly, and recognizing the importance of international support, particularly that of countries in the region, Iraq's neighbours, and regional organizations, in taking forward this process expeditiously,
Recognizing that international support for restoration of conditions of stability and security is essential to the well-being of the people of Iraq as well as to the ability of all concerned to carry out their work on behalf of the people of Iraq, and welcoming Member State contributions in this regard under resolution 1483 (2003),
Welcoming the decision of the Governing Council of Iraq to form a preparatory constitutional committee to prepare for a constitutional conference that will draft a constitution to embody the aspirations of the Iraqi people, and urging it to complete this process quickly,
Affirming that the terrorist bombings of the Embassy of Jordan on 7 August 2003, of the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad on 19 August 2003, of the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf on 29 August 2003, and of the Embassy of Turkey on 14 October 2003, and the murder of a Spanish diplomat on 9 October 2003 are attacks on the people of Iraq, the United Nations, and the international community, and deploring the assassination of Dr. Akila al-Hashimi, who died on 25 September 2003, as an attack directed against the future of Iraq,
In that context, recalling and reaffirming the statement of its President of 20 August 2003 (S/PRST/2003/13) and resolution 1502 (2003) of 26 August 2003,
Determining that the situation in Iraq, although improved, continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security,
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
1. Reaffirms the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq, and underscores, in that context, the temporary nature of the exercise by the Coalition Provisional Authority (Authority) of the specific responsibilities, authorities, and obligations under applicable international law recognized and set forth in resolution 1483 (2003) which will cease when an internationally recognized representative government established by the people of Iraq is sworn in and assumes the responsibilities of the Authority, inter alia through steps envisaged in paragraphs 4 through 7 and 10 below:
2. Welcomes the positive response of the international community, in form, such as the Arab League, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the United Nations General Assembly, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, to the establishment of the broadly representative Governing Council as all important step towards an internationally recognized, representative government;
3. Supports the Governing Council's efforts to mobilize the people of Iraq, including by the appointment of a cabinet of ministers and a preparatory constitutional committee to lead a process in which the Iraqi people will progressively take control of their own affairs;
4. Determines that the Governing Council and its ministers are the principal bodies of the Iraqi interim administration, which, without prejudice to its further evolution, embodies the sovereignty of the State of Iraq during the transitional period until an internationally recognized, representative government is established and assumes the responsibilities of the Authority;
5. Affirms that the administration of Iraq will be progressively undertaken by the evolving structures of the Iraqi interim administration;
6. Calls upon the Authority, in this context, to return governing responsibilities and authorities to the people of Iraq as soon as practicable and requests the Authority, in cooperation as appropriate with the Governing Council and the Secretary-General, to report to the Council on the progress being made;
7. Invites the Governing Council to provide to the Security Council, for its review, no later than 15 December 2003, in cooperation with the Authority and, as circumstances permit, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, a timetable and a programme for the drafting of a new constitution for Iraq and for the holding of democratic elections under that constitution;
8. Resolves that the United Nations, acting through the Secretary-General, his Special Representative, and the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, should strengthen its vital role in Iraq, including by providing humanitarian relief, promoting the economic reconstruction of and conditions for sustainable development in Iraq, and advancing efforts to restore and establish national and local institutions for representative government;
9. Requests that, as circumstances permit, the Secretary-General pursue the course of action outlined in paragraphs 98 and 99 of the report of the Secretary-General of 17 July 2003 (S/2003/715);
10. Takes note of the intention of the Governing Council to hold a constitutional conference and, recognizing that the convening of the conference will be a milestone in the movement to the full exercise of sovereignty, calls for its preparation through national dialogue and consensus-building as soon as practicable and requests the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, at the time of the convening of the conference or, as circumstances permit, to lend the unique expertise of the United Nations to the Iraqi people in this process of political transition, including the establish establishment of electoral processes;
11. Requests the Secretary-General to ensure that the resources of the United Nations and associated organizations are available, if requested by the Iraqi Governing Council and, as circumstances permit, to assist in furtherance of the programme provided by the Governing Council in paragraph 7 above, and encourages other organizations with expertise in this area to support the Iraqi Governing Council, if requested;
12. Requests the Secret Secretary-General to report to the Security Council on his responsibilities under this resolution and the development and implementation of a timetable and programme under paragraph 7 above;
13. Determines that the provision of security and stability is essential to the successful completion of the political process as outlined in paragraph 7 above and to the ability of the United Nations to contribute effectively to that process and the implementation of resolution 1483 (2003), and authorizes a multinational force under unified command to take all necessary measures to contribute to the maintenance of security and stability in Iraq, including for the purpose of ensuring necessary conditions for the implementation of the timetable and programme as well as to contribute to the security of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, the Governing Council of Iraq and other institutions of the Iraqi interim administration, and key humanitarian and economic infrastructure;
14. Urges Member States to contribute assistance under this United Nations inundate, including military forces, to the multinational force referred to in paragraph 13 above;
15. Decides that the Council shall review the requirements and mission of the multinational force referred to in paragraph 13 above not later than one year from the date of this resolution, and that in any case the mandate of the force shall expire upon the completion of the political process as described in paragraphs 4 through 7 and 10 above, and expresses readiness to consider on that occasion any future need for the continuation of the multinational force, taking into account the views of an internationally recognized, representative government of Iraq;
16. Emphasizes the importance of establishing effective Iraqi police and security forces in maintaining law, order, and security and combating terrorism consistent with paragraph 4 of resolution 1483 (2003), and calls upon Member States and international and regional organizations to contribute to the training and equipping of Iraqi police and security forces;
17. Expresses deep sympathy and condolences for the personal losses suffered by the Iraqi people and by the United Nations and the families of those United Nations personnel and other innocent victims who are killed or injured in these tragic attacks;
18. Unequivocally condemns the terrorist bombings of the Embassy of Jordan on 7 August 2003, of the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad on 19 August 2003, and of the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf on 29 August 2003, and of the Embassy of Turkey on 14 October 2003, the murder of a Spanish diplomat on 9 October 2003, and the assassination of Dr. Akila al-Hashimi, who died on 25 September 2003, and emphasizes that those responsible must be brought to justice;
19. Calls upon Member States to prevent the transit of terrorist to Iraq, arms for terrorists, and financing that would support terrorists, and emphasizes the importance of strengthening the cooperation of the countries of the region, particularly neighbours of Iraq, in this regard;
20. Appeals to Member States and the international financial institutions to strengthen their efforts to assist the people of Iraq in the reconstruction and development of their economy, and urges those institutions to take immediate steps to provide their full range of loans and other financial assistance to Iraq, Working with the Governing Council and appropriate Iraqi ministries;
21. Urges Member States and international and regional organizations to support the Iraq reconstruction effort initiated at the 24 June 2003 United Nations Technical Consultations, including through substantial pledges at the 23-24 October 2003 International Donors Conference in Madrid;
22. Calls upon Member States and concerned organizations to help meet the needs of the Iraqi people by providing resources necessary for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Iraq's economic infrastructure;
23.Emphasizes that the International Advisory and Monitoring Board IAMB referred to in paragraph 12 of resolution 1483 (2003) should be established as a priority, and reiterates that the Development Fund for Iraq shall be used in a transparent manner as set out in paragraph 14 of resolution 1483 (2003);
24. Reminds all Member States of their obligations under paragraphs 19 and 23 of resolution 1483 (2003) in particular the obligation to immediately cause the transfer of funds, other financial assets and economic resources to the Development Fund for Iraq for the benefit of the Iraqi people;
25. Requests that the United States, on behalf of the multinational force as outlined in paragraph 13 above, report to the Security Council on the efforts and progress of this force as appropriate and not less than every six months;
26. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
Source: US State Department, Washington File, http://usinfo.state.gov.
UN Secretary-General's remarks to Security Council following adoption of Resolution 1511 on Iraq, October 16
May I commend the members of the Security Council for having reached this significant agreement on what obviously is a particularly important resolution to address the complex situation in Iraq. The process has been difficult. But the outcome is a clear demonstration of the will of all the members of the Security Council to place the interests of the Iraqi people above all other considerations.
Our common objective is to restore peace and stability to a sovereign, democratic and independent Iraq as quickly as possible. It is critical to the Iraqi people, the region and the entire international community that we succeed in reaching the goal of an Iraq that is at peace with itself and with its neighbours, and is contributing to stability in the region.
As Secretary-General, I shall do my utmost to implement the mandate established by the Council, bearing in mind the constraints on building up the required capacity and my obligation to care for the safety and security of United Nations staff. I am grateful to the Council for the flexibility that the new resolution gives me in this respect.
Although at this moment the United Nations has only a skeleton presence on the ground, we are determined to continue helping the Iraqi people as best as we can, from both inside and outside the country, primarily in providing humanitarian assistance.
As circumstances permit, I plan to proceed with the other tasks indicated in the resolution. I have no doubt that we all look forward to the earliest possible establishment of an elected Government that will return Iraq to full sovereignty.
Source: UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/apps/sg/sgstats.asp?nid=569.
U.S. Says Iraq Resolution Reflects Multilateral Approach, October 16
Explanation of Vote by Ambassador John D. Negroponte, United States Permanent Representative to the United Nations, in his National Capacity, on Resolution 1511 Addressing the Situation in Iraq, in the Security Council, October 16, 2003
I will now make a statement in my capacity as representative of the United States.
First of all let me again thank the Secretary General for his presence here today, his important statement, and his commitment to lend his support to the implementation of Resolution 1511.
Today's vote is a vote for the future of Iraq. By its unanimous adoption of this resolution, the international community has demonstrated its wholehearted support for the people of Iraq.
During the past six weeks, we have engaged in intense and constructive discussions about the role of the international community in Iraq. My government has listened carefully to the concerns of each Council member and we greatly appreciate the thorough exchange of views. The end result of our dialogue is a strengthened resolution, a resolution that will enlarge the international community's participation in Iraq's stabilization and reconstruction. Extending both hands to a key country in a strategic region will serve our mutual interests in peace and security.
We started these discussions in the wake of the devastating trio of terrorist bombings at the Jordanian embassy, United Nations headquarters, and the Imam Ali mosque. These actions represented an assault on the new Iraq, as was the tragic assassination of Governing Council member Dr. Akila al-Hashimi.
To meet this challenge, it was necessary to recommit the international community, and in so doing expand the opportunities for participation by member states, regional organizations, and the United Nations. In crafting this resolution, we never lost sight of the conditions on the ground. Our consistent aim has been to support the Iraqis and those who have joined them in this unprecedented stabilization, reconstruction and recovery effort.
The resolution has four key elements. First, it confirms Iraqi leadership in establishing a political horizon for the transfer of power and makes clear that the interim Iraqi leadership embodies Iraqi sovereignty during the transition. In this regard, the resolution also reaffirms a point that the United States has never left in doubt: the exercise of governmental authorities in Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority is temporary in nature. We will not waver from our stated objective of transferring governing responsibilities and authorities to the people of Iraq as soon as practicable. Second, in addressing the crucially important process of political transition, the resolution provides for an expanded United Nations role, commensurate with the United Nations unique experience and expertise, subject to United Nations capacity in Iraq. Third, the resolution establishes a United Nations-authorized multinational force under unified United States command, and provides a platform for contributions to the training and equipping of Iraqi police and security forces. Fourth, the resolution encourages the international financial institutions and others to provide significant and sustained contributions to the reconstruction and development of Iraq's economy as tangible proof of their commitment to the economic health and political stability of Iraq.
By addressing the triad of politics, economics, and security, the resolution offers a solid base for expanded international engagement. My government's careful consideration of text during these past weeks reflects our commitment to a multilateral approach to this compelling matter. We welcome those, including of course the co-sponsors, who have joined us, and urge all states to review how they might best contribute to Iraqi efforts to forge a better future. If there ever was a time to help Iraq, it is now.
Source: US State Department, Washington File, http://usinfo.state.gov.
'Powell Says U.N. Resolution Strengthens International Support for Iraq,' Interview on Fox News Sunday with Tony Snow October 19
MR. SNOW: Secretary Powell, there is a report in today's New York Times that a 13-volume State Department report called the Future of Iraq Project anticipated a number of the problems that allies are now facing in trying to reconstruct Iraq, and that many of the recommendations were ignored by the Pentagon in putting together a war plan. Is that story true or false?
SECRETARY POWELL: Well, there was a study done under State Department leadership called the Future of Iraq; it was a very extensive piece of work. And when General Garner was appointed by Secretary Rumsfeld to head ORHA, as it was called, ORHA, all of that information was made available to General Garner, and it's still available to the Pentagon and to others involved in reconstruction. What parts of it were used or not used, you'd have to ask the Pentagon and those who have been working on it. But we have a number of the people who participated in the work now working with Ambassador Bremer; a number of people from the State Department who are very familiar with that work are now in Baghdad and other parts of Iraq working with Ambassador Bremer.
MR. SNOW: Do you believe it is accurate, however, that some of the recommendations -- had they been examined more closely and carried out into effect -- would have made life easier for the allies in rebuilding Iraq?
SECRETARY POWELL: Well, I couldn't comment on that, Tony, without knowing what specific recommendations the authors of the article were talking about. And you know, in any study, not every recommendation is accepted. But it was a quality piece of work that was made available to General Garner for his use and the use of those involved in the reconstruction effort.
MR. SNOW: One of the recommendations was that the United States not demobilize the entire Iraqi military, but instead try to keep many of those in the military employed on the theory that it's better to have them on your side than possibly giving them some cause to go back to the other side. Also today in The New York Times, Iyad Allawi, who is the head of the Provisional Iraqi Governing Authority, says the same thing, that it is time for allies to go back and rehire, at least to the mid-officer level, all those old Iraqi soldiers and get them working. Do you think that's a good idea?
SECRETARY POWELL: There are a couple of issues here. To some extent, the Iraqi army demobilized itself; it didn't stand and fight as much as we thought it would. In Gulf War I, back in '91 when I was Chairman, we took 80,000 prisoners. In this conflict, there were only about 7,000 prisoners. To some extent, the army melted away as an organized force. And then when Ambassador Bremer began his work, he thought it was important to make sure that we had totally de-Baathified the institutions to include the Iraqi army, and now we are rebuilding an Iraqi army under Ambassador Bremer's leadership, and under the leadership of General Abazaid and the other commanders in Baghdad -- General Sanchez. And so I will leave it up to them as to the best way to reconstitute that army and what part of the old structure do you want to use, what individuals are you now comfortable with putting in positions of leadership in a new army. The first battalion has graduated and many more will follow in fairly rapid order, as well as the creation of a new police force.
MR. SNOW: Secretary, there is continuing controversy about the justification used for the war. I'm going to ask you once again about Greg Thielmann, a former State Department employee, who has said that the testimony you presented to the United Nations Security Council exaggerated intelligence on a host of issues ranging from aluminum tubes with possible nuclear use, to the range and capability of missiles within Iraq. I know you've answered the question before, but I want to get your response to the repeated charges of Greg Thielmann.
SECRETARY POWELL: Well, Mr. Thielmann has his opinion. But what I presented on the fifth of February to the United Nations wasn't something I pulled out of the air and it wasn't something given to me by a group of political mentors. I sat for days with the Central Intelligence Agency, with the actual analysts as well as the top leadership of the CIA: George Tenet, John McLaughlin -- the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence -- and we went over every single word in my presentation and every single exhibit. And what I presented represented the best judgment of the intelligence community. Nothing was juiced, nothing was exaggerated; it was what they believed. And they stood firmly behind that presentation and they do to this day.
And as Dr. Kay goes about his work -- he's in charge of our effort to exploit all of the documents and view all of the sites that we have discovered in Iraq -- we will see more information coming forward, and he has validated some of the information we've presented already, with respect to the fact that there were programs kept intact by Saddam Hussein for chemical, biological and even nuclear development when circumstances permitted, to go even further than they had been able to go under the presence of inspectors and sanctions --
MR. SNOW: So you expect to be vindicated by David --
SECRETARY POWELL: -- so I think the case is still out --
MR. SNOW: I'm sorry, go ahead.
SECRETARY POWELL: I stand by the presentation because it was a presentation that was put together by the intelligence community and it represented the best judgment of the intelligence community, not the best judgment of any political leaders.
MR. SNOW: Do you expect to be vindicated by David Kay?
SECRETARY POWELL: Yes.
MR. SNOW: Let's turn to Ted Kennedy, the Senator from Massachusetts. He had some fairly scalding comments this week about the President. We're going to play them and I want to get your reaction: "Week, after week, after week, after week, we were told lie, after lie, after lie, after lie . The President's war has been revealed as mindless, needless, senseless, reckless. The American people all know this, our allies know it, our soldiers know it." Mr. Secretary, your response.
SECRETARY POWELL: I totally disagree with Senator Kennedy. The President did not lie week after week after week, and the American people know better. The American people know better and are demonstrating they know better by their support for the President's policies. And I don't think it's accurate to say that our allies feel that as well. There are 32 nations standing alongside us in Iraq now. I don't think they'd be standing alongside us if they didn't think they were doing the right thing, if they didn't think that this was a noble cause that got rid of a horrible regime, a horrible dictator, who had gassed people in the past, and we didn't want to take the chance he would gas them, expose them to biological weapons, or, given the chance, reconstitute his nuclear weapons program. He never lost that intent.
And so I disagree with the Senator, and I think that we should be proud of what our young men and women have done, are doing in the Gulf now, in Baghdad now, throughout Iraq now, and such comments, it seems to me, don't support us in that effort to support them and to rally the international community. We got a unanimous UN resolution this week. There are some nations who had some reservations about that resolution but nevertheless voted for it. And we now have the entire international community aligned with our policy of gradually, but as fast as we can, nevertheless in a gradual way, restoring sovereignty to the people of Iraq and coming home as fast as we can.
But we're going to do it right. And when we have done it right, Iraq will be a better country living in peace with its neighbors. No one will have to have any future debates about weapons of mass destruction because it will be a government elected by the people who have no such interest in threatening its neighbors or developing such weapons of mass destruction or creating mass graves or being a source of instability throughout the region and a possible source of such weapons of mass destruction for terrorists to acquire.
MR. SNOW: One of your predecessors, former Secretary of State Madeline Albright was speaking this week to the French media and she made the following comments: she said that President Bush and the people working for him have a foreign policy that is not good for America, not good for the world. She says it's too much the United States versus the world. Your response.
SECRETARY POWELL: Well, I disagree with her. The United States pulled together a unanimous resolution of the UN this week. President Bush is here at the APEC meeting having excellent meetings with his counterparts -- a fine visit with our Japanese friends. You saw the images coming from Manila in the Philippines yesterday. You have seen him meet today with the prime minister of Thailand and with the president of China. All of these are solid relationships that we have. And I disagree with Secretary Albright, who I believe is in France on a book tour.
MR. SNOW: Do statements of that sort undermine the President?
SECRETARY POWELL: Well, you know, it's a free country, people are entitled to their opinion, and people are entitled to their opinion and we take praise when it comes and we take abuse when it comes. It's part of being in public life; it's part of our very, very dynamic political system.
MR. SNOW: Mr. Secretary, you mentioned the United Nations Security Council vote. Do you expect that to produce any additional funds for Iraqi reconstruction, and more to the point, how much extra money do we need to do the job right?
SECRETARY POWELL: Well, we'll take as much money as we can get. And I think the resolution will encourage some countries to give who might not have had a basis to give before the resolution was passed. And I think it very much helps the International Financial Institutions -- the World Bank and the IMF -- to do more than they might have been able to do in the absence of a resolution. We didn't think the resolution, in and of itself, would turn loose a great deal of money or a large number of additional troops.
But for those nations that were considering making a contribution, of either troops or money, this gives them a more solid basis to do so. The real achievement of the resolution was to bring the power of the Security Council, and in turn, the United Nations, behind the strategy that we are following, and the creation of a multinational force, the transfer of sovereignty back to Iraq in a measured way as Iraqi institutions are prepared to accept authority, and not in some arbitrary way -- "In the first of January, we're out of here, and you've got your country back, and we won't have anything else to do with it."
We are going about this in the right way, and I'm pleased that the Security Council, after a great deal of debate, has voted unanimously to support the approach that we are taking.
Source: US State Department, Washington File, http://usinfo.state.gov.
'Rumsfeld Says Passage of New U.N. Resolution on Iraq Is "A Plus"', Defense Department Briefing, October 16, 2003
Q: Mr. Secretary, the U.N. Security Council has, just within minutes ago, passed a new -- a U.S.-supported resolution on Iraq. You have said previously that you don't expect that that would result in large numbers of additional international troops in Iraq. What will the -- initially, what will the practical effect be on security in Iraq?
SEC. RUMSFELD: Well, it's a good thing that it passed, and it will have a favorable effect in some countries that have indicated they would prefer to have an additional U.N. Security Council resolution. Which countries and how many troops it might affect, I think, remains to be seen. We're in discussions with -- oh, goodness, I'm going to guess -- five or six, seven, countries still about it, and time will tell. And it's really up to them and to their parliaments and their cabinets. It has one other effect, and that is it, I believe, makes it easier for the -- what do they call them, the international financial lending institutions -- I think it makes it easier for that cluster of international organizations, somewhat, to participate in helping the rebuilding of Iraq. So that's' a good thing.
Q: Do you expect that it might quickly have some effect, some positive effect on security?
SEC. RUMSFELD: I think -- I'd like to be able to say yes, but I wouldn't be able to -- I can't in my own mind indicate in what ways it might. It certainly is a plus, not a minus, but I couldn't draw a connection line between the resolution and security. It's a tough situation there.
Source: US State Department, Washington File, http://usinfo.state.gov.
STATEMENT BY THE FOREIGN SECRETARY, JACK STRAW, THURSDAY 16 OCTOBER 2003
This resolution 1511 which has just been passed by fifteen votes to zero in the United Nations Security Council represents an important step on the road to a free Iraq run by the Iraqi people by themselves for the first time in many, many decades.
The initiative for the resolution came from President Bush and Prime Minister Blair in the aftermath of the terrible bombing of the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad on 19 August. Since then we've been working very hard with our international partners to put together a resolution which could command a consensus. There was some scepticism about whether we'd be able to achieve that but we have indeed done so.
And the record for this week is that Monday we reckoned we had nine votes, Tuesday we were certain. As of yesterday we were certain we had twelve votes, it became a long day of negotiations beginning with a long conversation with my colleague Minister Li from China, culminating in the small hours of this morning in the final conversation of many with Secretary Powell of the United States.
We were going to go for a vote yesterday when we had twelve votes, we decided however that we would delay the vote today in the hope we could get to unanimity or near unanimity and we've done so, and it's good that we have done so because the more there is a consensus behind this kind of resolution the better.
And what the resolution does is first of all ensure that there is a clear vision of a rapid transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqi people, secondly set up a clear timescale for the Governing Council to produce their own report on a timescale for the transfer in detail and for the constitutional convention by 15 December and third to authorise this multi national force under unified command which will be United States command, but to give it greater international legitimacy which we hope will encourage further troop contributions. And the whole thing is a good augury for the donors' conference in Madrid on 24 October on the financing of Iraq.
Source: UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office, http://www.fco.gov.uk.
Joint Statement by France, Germany and the Russian Federation in Connection with the Adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1511, October 16, 2003
As a result of the proposals and amendments made by our three countries, the text of the resolution was improved in the course of the negotiating process. This enabled us, in a spirit of unity, to support it as a step in the right direction - towards the reconstruction of Iraq with UN participation.
At the same time we believe that the resolution should have gone farther in two major questions: first, the UN's role, especially in the political process, and second, the pace of the transfer of authorities to the Iraqi people.
In this context no conditions for our countries' assumption of military or additional financial commitments apart from the already announced contribution have been created.
Source: Russian Embassy to the United States, http://www.russianembassy.org.
Statement by Sergey Lavrov, the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations, at the Official UN Security Council Meeting Upon the Adoption of the Resolution on Iraq, October 16, 2003
The general assessments of SCR 1511, just adopted unanimously, are contained in a joint French-German-Russian statement which is being circulated in the UN.
In addition we want to stress that the Russian Federation had from the very beginning of the work on the new resolution been guided by the tasks to facilitate the earliest possible political settlement of the situation in that country under the aegis of the UN, to help the Iraqi people regain their sovereignty and prevent the Iraqi crisis from destabilizing the situation in the region.
The continuation of the crisis tendencies in Iraq is in no one's interests. That is why a uniting of international efforts is so necessary in the quest for a long-term and stable political settlement, with the result that lawfully elected representatives of the Iraqi people could take the administration of the country into their own hands and the neighbors of Iraq would feel safe.
We are pleased that as a result of the efforts of Russia, France, Germany, China and other Council members, as well as of the UN Secretary General a resolution was in the course of the talks with the draft's co-authors successfully elaborated that gives a real chance to transfer the Iraqi situation from a phase of occupation into a stage of practical measures to restore the sovereignty of Iraq.
The resolution unambiguously reaffirms the right of the Iraqi people to determine their own political future and control their own natural resources. Envisaged is the preparation of a concrete schedule of the political process, including the approval of a constitution for Iraq and the formation of a government as a result of democratic elections. The importance is recognized of support for this process from states of the region, primarily Iraq's neighbors, and the necessity is underscored of taking even at this stage concrete steps to transfer to the Iraqis themselves managerial and administrative functions. And with the election of an internationally recognized government of Iraq the authorities of the occupying powers will fully cease.
Although in the present conditions, when due security is absent in Iraq, the United Nations is not in a position to play a full-fledged role in the reconstruction of that country, the resolution invests the Secretary General with a right to decide on the timetable for, and the modalities of joining in the political process, including the formation of the composition of a constitutional conference and the holding of elections. We are convinced that with the stabilization of the situation in Iraq the UN will fulfill the powers reserved for it in these fields, where it truly can and should be the leader.
It is of fundamental importance that the Secretary General will report to the Security Council on the progress being made in the political process in all its aspects.
Another major point is the agreement reached on the mandate for a multinational force (MNF) sanctioned by the Security Council. In a finally agreed form its functions, as Russia had proposed, are directly subordinated to the tasks of assisting the restoration of Iraq's sovereignty, and as soon as this occurs - the mandate of the MNF will expire. If, however, a lawfully elected Iraqi government asks to give it in some or other form assistance in the maintenance of security, the Security Council will consider that request.
This provision of the resolution, as well as the regular reports provided in it of the Secretary General, the MNF command and the Coalition Provisional Authority guarantee constant Security Council control over the course of the political settlement and the general reconstruction of Iraq. The SC will be able to make necessary corrections to this process.
In the economic field the resolution recalls the necessity to ensure full transparence in the activities of the Development Fund for Iraq, including by way of the speediest establishment of the International Advisory and Monitoring Board, the formation of which has obviously become protracted without any convincing reasons.
The resolution does not touch such questions left open as the problem of Iraqi WMD, the fate of those who went missing during the first Gulf war and Kuwaiti property. It is clear, however, that the Security Council will have yet to deal with these problems in accordance with Resolution 1483.
On the whole the new resolution, of course, is not ideal. Not all of its provisions have been brought up to the mark. The result obtained is a compromise which does not solve all the problems. However at this stage, all the factors being considered, we see in this resolution more pluses than minuses. It is of fundamental importance that during the talks a consensus was reached in the Security Council, to which Russia had from the outset attached priority significance.
Now all members of the international community, and primarily the occupation authority, should do everything possible to accomplish the fundamental task declared in the resolution, notably that the day when the Iraqis govern themselves must come quickly. We shall stress once again: the resolution creates the conditions for this. It is our common duty to do so that the goals set forth in it do not remain on paper, but are implemented. Only then will the efforts spent on the elaboration of the resolution justify themselves.
Source: Russian Embassy to the United States, http://www.russianembassy.org.
Replies by Russian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Yuri Fedotov to Russian Media Questions Regarding Adoption by UN Security Council of New Resolution on Iraq
Question: The United Nations Security Council has just adopted a new resolution on Iraq. Why did Russia vote in the affirmative? For critical remarks had been made by our side over the past few weeks against the US draft resolution.
Answer: Russia had indeed vigorously insisted on a substantial revision of the original draft resolution. Our proposals had been directed to accelerating the process of political settlement in Iraq and transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqi people while investing the UN with real and weighty functions.
As a result of lengthy consultations a substantial rapprochement of the positions of the UN Security Council member countries had been achieved, and decisively important in this had been contacts at the highest political level.
The resolution even in its present form is far from ideal. But it is the product of a complex compromise. In any case its provisions go much farther than UNSCR 1483, which was adopted unanimously.
It is important that the unanimously adopted Council decision stresses that the powers of the occupation authorities bear a temporary character and will be terminated immediately after the swearing-in of a lawful government of Iraq. By December 15 a timetable for the restoration of Iraqi sovereignty will be submitted to the UN Security Council. The United Nations will be able to make a contribution to holding a constitutional conference and organizing elections. The mandate of the UNSC-approved Multinational Force will also expire after the creation of a new internationally recognized Iraqi government, and subsequently the question of the international military presence in Iraq will be decided in the Security Council.
Moscow presumes that this is far from the last UNSC decision on Iraq and the questions of postwar settlement in that country will continue to occupy a priority place on its agenda. Russia is ready to work actively in the interest of long-term stabilization in Iraq and the earliest possible transfer of power to the Iraqi people.
Question: Will Russia be prepared to participate in the Multinational Force now? Are we going to make donor contributions to the reconstruction of Iraq?
Answer: The question of Russia's participation in the Multinational Force is not being considered. Real conditions hardly exist for this. As to the reconstruction of Iraq, there are quite a few different schemes of action here, and everything should not be reduced to donor contributions alone. Russian companies have a valuable experience of cooperation with Iraqi partners in the implementation of large investment projects of an economic and humanitarian nature. It appears that this experience could be used in the interest of the earliest possible reconstruction of Iraq.
Source: Russian Embassy to the United States, http://www.russianembassy.org.
Germany's explanation of vote on the occasion of the adoption of SC-Res. 1511 (Iraq), Oct. 16, 2003.
- The resolution adopted takes up important concerns of post-war order in Iraq. It further develops the preceding Resolutions 1483 and 1500 on Iraq and places new emphases.
- The sponsors of resolution 1511 have, in our view, undertaken commendable efforts to reach a text that accomodates important claims we have made. This we expressly recognize and this was one of the factors for our approval.
- Another factor was that we and the sponsors share the same goals in Iraq: i.e. to contribute to a swift stabilization of the conditions in Iraq, to support the political and economic reconstruction process in Iraq and to promote the restoration of sovereignty of the Iraqi people through a government democratically elected by them. This can only succeed when the SC appears as unified as possible. We therefore did not want to stand in the way of unity of the Council.
- Although we consider the resolution to be an important step in the right direction we nevertheless remain of the view that the amendments presented together with FRA and RUS could have led to a better resolution.
- We miss the clear signal that
- In this context I refer to the joint statement of Russia, France and Germany explaining our common position: We therefore cannot envisage any military commitment.
- We remain firmly optimistic that an even broader involvement of the United Nations - in particular of the SG, the Iraqi people and the neighbors in the region - in the reconstruction process in Iraq will succeed.
Source: German Mission to the United Nations, http://www.germany-info.org/UN/.
At time of writing, France's reaction to UN Security Council Resolution is only available in French from the French Foreign Ministry at:
Statement by Spokesperson Zhang Qiyue on the New UN Security Council Resolution on Iraq, October 17
The UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1511 on the Iraq on Oct.16.
China has always supported the adoption of a new UN Security Council resolution on Iraq so as to give full play to the important role of the United Nations in the early realization of stability in Iraq and the goal of "Iraqi people governing Iraq".
China has consistently adopted a constructive attitude and actively participated in the consultation in the drafting of the resolution and proposed suggestions for amendment. After several rounds of consultations and revision, the resolution adopted many rational suggestions from China and other parties, in particular in its contents on advancing the political process in Iraq, gradually enhancing the role of the UN and increasing the transparency in the reconstruction. The resolution still leaves room for improvement. China voted in favor of the resolution in light of the practical need and long-term interest of the Iraqi people.
China hopes the UN Security Council would maintain solidarity and cooperation, pay close attention to the Iraqi situation and fully consider the common demand of the international community for the early restoration of sovereignty in Iraq. The UN should be given full play of its role in helping Iraq back to the track of peace, stability and development. China is willing to make unremitting efforts to that end.
Source: China Ministry of Foreign Affairs, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/xwfw/2510/2535/t29688.htm.
© 2003 The Acronym Institute.