Disarmament DiplomacyIssue No. 48, July 2000
G8 MeetingsLeaders' Summit Meeting of the Leaders and Foreign Ministers of the G8 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United States), plus the President of the European Commission, Okinawa, Japan, July 2000.
Final Communiqué, July 23.
71. We renew the commitment we made at the 1996 Moscow Summit to safety first in the use of nuclear power and achievement of high safety standards worldwide. We agreed to continue to co-operate in promoting a high standard of nuclear safety. We continue to attach great importance to the full and timely implementation of the Nuclear Safety Account Grant Agreement. …
72. The international community should act urgently and effectively to prevent and resolve armed conflict. Many people have been sacrificed and injured, many economies have been impoverished, and much devastation has been visited upon the environment. In an ever more interdependent world such negative effects spread rapidly. Therefore, a 'Culture of Prevention' should be promoted throughout the global community. All members of the international community should seek to promote the settlement of disputes by peaceful means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
73. We underline the importance of the work done by our Foreign Ministers on conflict prevention since their special meeting in December 1999 in Berlin and the Conclusions of their July 2000 meeting in Miyazaki. We commit ourselves to work for their implementation particularly with respect to economic development and conflict prevention, children in conflict, and international civilian police. We express special concern that the proceeds from the illicit trade in diamonds have contributed to aggravating armed conflict and humanitarian crises, particularly in Africa. We therefore call for an international conference, whose results shall be submitted to the UN, building on the UN Security Council Resolution 1306 and inter alia the 'Kimberley' process launched by the Government of South Africa, to consider practical approaches to breaking the link between the illicit trade in diamonds and armed conflict, including consideration of an international agreement on certification for rough diamonds.
The UN Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects next year requires strong support to ensure a successful outcome, including earliest possible agreement on the Firearms Protocol. We invite the international community to exercise restraint in conventional arms exports, and are committed to work jointly to this end. We invite our Foreign Ministers to examine further effective measures to prevent conflicts.
Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and Arms Control
74. We welcome the successful outcome of the 2000 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. We are determined to implement the conclusions reached at this Conference, including the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the immediate commencement and the conclusion within five years of negotiations for the Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty. We remain committed to promoting universal adherence to and compliance with the NPT.
75. We look forward to the early entry into force and full implementation of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) II and to the conclusion of START III as soon as possible, while preserving and strengthening the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty as a cornerstone of strategic stability and as a basis for further reductions of strategic offensive weapons, in accordance with its provisions. We welcome the ratification of the CTBT and START II by Russia.
76. The transparent, safe, secure, environmentally sound and irreversible disposition and management of weapon-grade plutonium no longer required for defence purposes remains vital. The agreement on plutonium disposition reached between the United States and Russia, reinforced by their statement of intention concerning non-separation of additional weapon-grade plutonium, marks a critical milestone. The co-operation among the G8 countries has yielded significant results and our next steps should build on this co-operation and related international projects.
77. Our goal for the next Summit is to develop an international financing plan for plutonium management and disposition based on a detailed project plan, and a multilateral framework to co-ordinate this co-operation. We will expand our co-operation to other interested countries in order to gain the widest possible international support, and will explore the potential for both public and private funding.
78. We welcome the reinforcement of global regimes to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems. We also recognise the need to examine and promote further multilateral measures to curb missile proliferation. In this regard, we strongly support the important work of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and will consider the proposal for a Global Monitoring System. We will work to increase the level of international contributions to the Russian chemical weapons destruction programme. We commit ourselves to work with others to conclude the negotiations on the Verification Protocol to strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention as early as possible in 2001. …"
Regional Issues: South Asia & Korean Peninsular
Statement on Regional Issues, July 21:
"The level of tension between India and Pakistan remains a cause of international concern. We call on the two countries to resume dialogue as soon as possible in the spirit of Lahore in order to realise a sustainable peace in the region.
We call on both India and Pakistan to join international efforts to strengthen the non-proliferation and disarmament regime. While welcoming those positive statements and steps that have been made, we reiterate our call for them to carry out fully the concrete measures set out in the UNSCR 1172, including signing and ratifying the CTBT. …"
Statement on Korean Peninsular, July 21:
"We warmly welcome the Summit Meeting between the ROK and the DPRK held in Pyongyang on June 13-15 2000 and underline the historic importance of this meeting. We fully support the positive developments set in train by the meeting, and encourage the South-North dialogue to continue and advance further. We sincerely hope that such a process, including the faithful implementation of the South-North Joint Declaration, will usher in a new era in inter-Korean relations and reduce the tensions in the Korean Peninsula.
We strongly support all efforts by the ROK and the DPRK to reduce tension and establish lasting peace on the Korean Peninsula that contribute to stability in Northeast Asia. We reiterate also our strong support for the ROK's engagement policy which is contributing to positive developments. We welcome the constructive attitude shown by the DPRK, and take note of the reconfirmation of its moratorium on missile-launch as a positive step. We call on the DPRK to continue such efforts. In this context, we look forward to a constructive response to international concerns over security, non-proliferation, humanitarian and human rights issues."
Plutonium Disposition Plan
'Fact Sheet: Disposition of United States and Russian Federation Weapons-Grade Plutonium,' The White House, July 21.
"The G8 today took an important step toward disposition of weapon-grade fissile material designated by the United States and Russia as excess to defense needs so that it will never again be used for weapons. The G8 called for the development, by the 2001 Genoa Summit, of an international financing plan and multilateral cooperation arrangements for Russia's disposition program. This announcement builds on the June 5 announcement in Moscow by President Clinton and President Putin regarding completion of a bilateral Agreement for the management and disposition of weapon-grade plutonium withdrawn from their respective nuclear weapon programs.
Today's announcement carries forward the sustained G8 efforts launched at the 1996 Moscow Nuclear Safety and Security Summit and continued at the Cologne Summit last year. The new US-Russia agreement charts the course for the safe and transparent disposition of a total of 68 metric tons of weapon-grade plutonium declared excess to US and Russian defense needs - an amount that represents thousands of nuclear weapons. It advances key arms control and non-proliferation interests.
The Agreement requires each Party to dispose of no less than 34 metric tons of weapon-grade plutonium from its nuclear weapon program by irradiating it as fuel in reactors, or by immobilizing it with high-level radioactive waste, rendering it safe for geologic disposal. The goal is to begin operation of industrial-scale facilities by 2007 to achieve a disposition rate of at least two metric tons of plutonium per year in rough parallel and, working with other countries, to identify additional capacities at least to double that disposition rate.
The Agreement also provides for monitoring and inspection throughout the disposition process, and allows for equivalent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verification measures in lieu of bilateral monitoring activities, as may be agreed by the Parties.
Preliminary estimates for the Russian Federation's disposition program are $1.7-$1.9 billion over 20 or more years. The US Congress has appropriated more than $200 million for cooperation with Russia's plutonium disposition program. The Clinton Administration is requesting another $200 million in funding for 2001."
'Joint Statement: Cooperation on Strategic Stability,' US-Russia Statement signed by Presidents Clinton & Putin, G8 Summit, July 21; White House text.
"The United States and Russia underscore that continued strengthening of global stability and international security is one of the most important tasks today. The Joint Statement on Principles of Strategic Stability, adopted in Moscow on June 4, 2000, establishes a constructive basis for progress in further reducing nuclear weapons arsenals, preserving and strengthening the ABM Treaty and confronting new challenges to international security.
The United States and Russia have begun intensified discussions on the earliest entry into force of the START II Treaty, on further reductions in strategic forces within the framework of a future START III Treaty and on ABM issues.
The United States and Russia are dedicated to the search for new ways of cooperation to control the spread of missiles and missile technology. They will work together on a new mechanism to supplement the Missile Technology Control Regime. This mechanism would integrate the Russian proposal for a Global Monitoring System, the US proposal for a missile code of conduct, as well as the mechanisms of the Missile Technology Control Regime, which the United States and Russia will continue to strengthen. They are prepared to expand their discussions of issues related to the threat of proliferation of missiles and missile technology.
The United States and Russia reaffirm their commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as the foundation of the international nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament regime. They will work to ensure early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and seek to expand cooperation related to the CTBT to promote mutually beneficial technical exchanges that will facilitate implementation of the CTBT after its entry into force.
Broadening their cooperation for the purpose of strengthening stability, the United States and Russia will apply their efforts toward creating, and placing into operation within the year, a joint US-Russian center for exchange of data from early warning systems and notification of launches. They will seek to complete work on an agreement on pre-launch notification for launches of ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles, and on principles for opening this system to the voluntary participation of all interested countries.
The United States and Russia are prepared to renew and expand their cooperation in the area of theater missile defenses, and consider the possibility of involving other states.
The Presidents of the United States and Russia have agreed that officials will meet in the near future to coordinate their activities in this area.
Russia and the United States call upon the other nations of the G-8 and all other nations of the world to unite their efforts to strengthen strategic stability."
Foreign Ministers' Meeting
Conclusions of the G8 Foreign Ministers Meeting, Miyazaki, Japan, 13 July.
4. We reaffirmed our commitment in Berlin in December 1999 to a sustained effort to promote a 'Culture of Prevention' throughout the global community and to develop conflict prevention initiatives. We emphasize the importance of pursuing a 'Comprehensive Approach', drawing from the range of political, security, economic, financial, environmental, social and development policies, in an integrated manner, from the pre-conflict phase to prevent conflicts from breaking out, to the post-conflict phase to ensure that conflicts do not recur. We will therefore continue to monitor carefully potential areas of armed conflict around the world. We underline the leading role of the United Nations in the prevention of conflict but recognize that the main responsibility rests with the protagonists.
5. To follow up the Berlin meeting, we endorse the following measures, that are detailed in our separate document made public today:
Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and Arms Control
6. We stress the need to maintain and further strengthen the international non-proliferation regime. … We welcome the success of the 2000 NPT Review Conference and call for full implementation of the conclusions reached at the Conference. We are pleased at the increase in the number of states which have ratified the CTBT. We call on all those states which have not yet done so to sign and ratify the Treaty without delay, particularly on those whose ratification is needed for its entry into force.
7. We welcome the interest of the international community in the Expanded Threat Reduction Initiative and similar efforts of the European Union and others to address arms control and non-proliferation. In particular, we commit ourselves to cooperate to establish multilateral arrangements necessary for a coordinated and integrated program for the safe management and disposition of weapon grade plutonium no longer required for defence purposes, and call on other states to join us in supporting this effort.
8. We look forward to the early entry into force and full implementation of START II and the conclusion of START III as soon as possible while preserving and strengthening the ABM Treaty as a cornerstone of strategic stability and as a basis for further reductions of strategic offensive weapons, in accordance with its provisions.
9. We welcome the Final Document of the NPT Review Conference urging the Conference on Disarmament to agree on the immediate commencement of negotiations on the Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty with a view to their conclusion within five years. We commit ourselves to work together to meet this goal. We will make utmost efforts with others to conclude the negotiations on a Protocol which will effectively strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention as early as possible in 2001. We agree on the need for the international community to increase the level of funding for the Russian chemical weapons destruction program as called for at the 5th Conference of the States Parties to the CWC.
10. We remain deeply concerned at missile proliferation, and we call upon the international community to continue to address this issue on a multilateral basis. We will continue our efforts to address the issue. Adherence to the MTCR plays a key role in this respect.
11. We also remain concerned by the scourge of anti-personnel landmines which have caused harm to so many innocent civilians throughout the world and by the continued existence of vast stockpiles of anti-personnel landmines. We are determined to support efforts, including those under the Ottawa Treaty, aimed at the total elimination of such landmines, and welcome the progress that has been made to date in mine clearance, humanitarian demining activities and stockpile destruction, and in the development of technologies for mine action. We will continue encouraging these activities. …
26. … [W]e warmly welcome the first ever ROK-DPRK [South Korea-North Korea] Summit Meeting in June, and look forward to further dialogue and the reduction of the tension in the region. We reiterate our support for the implementation of the Agreed Framework, including KEDO [Korean Peninsular Energy Development Organization]. We reaffirm our support for the ROK's policy of engagement. We welcome the recent steps taken by North Korea toward dialogue with the international community. In this context, we look forward to a constructive response to international concerns over security, non-proliferation, humanitarian and human rights issues. …
29. We are deeply concerned at the level of tension between India and Pakistan. We call on both countries to refrain from any action which would aggravate the situation and to resume dialogue as soon as possible in the spirit of Lahore.
30. We furthermore call on both India and Pakistan to join international efforts to strengthen the non-proliferation and disarmament regime, including continuation of their unilateral undertakings not to resume nuclear testing. …
36. We call on Iraq to comply fully with the relevant UN Security Council resolutions. Stressing the importance of the implementation of UNSCR 1284 in all its aspects, we call on the Iraqi Government to cooperate in all aspects with UNMOVIC and the IAEA. Given our continued concern about the plight of the Iraqi people, we call for a coordinated effort to improve the humanitarian situation in Iraq. We reaffirm our commitment to the territorial integrity of all the states of the region and underline the importance of regional stability and security. …
37. … We call on Iran to sign with the IAEA an additional safeguards protocol. The G8 calls on Iran to cooperate fully in not developing and in preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles for their delivery. …"
© 2000 The Acronym Institute.